Winter is a great time to explore birds as the white landscape and bare trees allow us to easily see movement and color. One bird I especially like to watch is the woodpecker. April Pulley-Sayre, a local nature author, recently came out with a delightful book for children focusing on woodpeckers we find in our area and their behaviors. With detailed and realistic cut paper woodpeckers, WoodpeckerWham! is a treat for children and adults. Here are a few woodpeckers we have in our area and how they act during winter. They typically stay in the same range during the winter, changing their eating habits to find nutritious and easily available foods.
|Male downy woodpecker--note the shorter bill and red patch Source|
· Downy—The smallest woodpecker in our area appears to have a downy appearance from the feathers. I watch for the size of the bill—if it was shorter than half the width of the head, then I know it’s a downy.
|Female hairy--note the longer bill and no red patch Source|
|Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Source|
· Yellow-belliedSapsucker—These small birds are typically black and white, with red foreheads. Males have a red throat. These are boldly marked with distinct white and stripe on the wings. Watch for a row of small holes, allowing the sap to be eaten.
|Female Northern Flicker Source|
· Northern Flicker—These may forage on the ground for insects using an unusually curved bill. With black spots, crescents, and bars on a background of brown plumage, these large woodpeckers are pretty to see. You might see yellow as they fly.
|Red-headed Woodpecker Source|
|Male Red-bellied Source|
· Red-bellied—A barred pattern on the back and red crown and nape makes this a distinct bird. A faint red or rosy patch on the belly gives it its name. Many confuse this with the Red-headed woodpecker due to the patch of red on top.
|Male Pileated Source|
· Pileated—The largest of the woodpeckers in our area, the bright red crest and black and white patterned face is distinct and easy to see as it flies in the woods. Their nest holes provide important shelter for other small animals.
As we started watching backyard birds, the woodpeckers were the ones we started figuring out first. They loved our suet cakes and would frequently come to our feeders when suet or peanut butter is out.
Typical Behaviors and Adaptations:
· Drumming—Woodpeckers often use drumming to communicate territory boundaries or attract a mate, though it may also be used to drill a hole or get an insect out.
· Bills as tools—Woodpeckers use their bills to help pry food out of trees. They do not actually eat wood, but wood chips can be found near where they have been drilling.
· Altered diets—Woodpeckers change what they eat in the winter, mostly eating seeds and nuts. Some will even store these for later use. Providing suet, sunflower seeds, and peanut butter in backyard feeding areas will attract woodpeckers in winter.
· Stiff tail feathers—These feathers help provide balance and stability while drumming or drilling on trees.
· Sharp claws—Feet help the birds cling to bark. Their “zygodactyl” (two toes facing forward and two facing backward) feet allow them to be stable on trees while they look for food.
· Brain protection—Extra sinew near the bill and the brain help alleviate potential brain damage with all the drilling.
· Debris blockers—Woodpeckers have special feathers near their noses and translucent third eyelid to protect from flying sawdust.